The Bhaja Caves comprise 25 Buddhist caves belonging to the Hinayana phase of Buddhism, and are located around 56 km from Pune, near Lonavala. They were all created between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. One of the oldest rock-cut chaityagrihas (prayer hall with a stupa inside) of the state of Maharashtra is located here; a horseshoe-shaped archway leads to this hall. In fact, it is the only one here. All the other caves are viharas, which are residential caves with independent cells inside them. These caves also hint at the history of the tabla, a percussion instrument; carvings from around 200 BCE show a woman playing the tabla, while others show dance performances. Stupas, said to be the relics of Buddhist monks, can also be found.

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