Lothal is a historian's delight. Abounding in ancient ruins, it is one of the most excavated sites of the Harappan era and gives a profound insight into the structures and settlement of the Indus Valley civilisation. Though Lothal is said to belong to the Dravidian era, recent findings point out its association with Vedas and Sanskrit scriptures. A local museum standing in the place traces 4,500 years of history of Lothal and one can delve into all the interesting tidbits to their heart's contents.
Literally meaning mound of the dead, Lothal was once a popular pottery village. It was inhabited by people who used micaceous (similar to terracotta) pottery and lived on the banks of River Sabarmati. Around circa 2450 BC, a colony was established by merchants who arrived by the sea and later masons, smiths, seal-cutters, potters joined in. Along with them, they brought technology, crafts and sea-borne trade tools. In a few years’ time, Lothal became famous as an industrial centre as well as the most important port of the empire. However, everything got destroyed by the floods in 2350 BC that resulted in the town getting reconstructed from scratch. Not only was Lothal rebuilt, it was improved upon by the survivors who ensured they strengthened the main walls of the fort, raised the town’s level, constructed an artificial dock and an extensive warehouse. After the next floods hit Lothal around 150 years later, the town was constructed once again and was turned into a city. The third flood, which hit the city in circa 2000 BC, saw the inhabitants migrating to higher and safer environs. Around 1900 BC, Lothal once again got submerged in floods and the period is known as Mature Harappan Period, giving way to the Late Harappan Period. Till around the 16th century, civilisation prospered here. Over time, the city was abandoned.  

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