Bihar is a state located in the eastern part of India. The state is surrounded by West Bengal in the east, Nepal in the north, Uttar Pradesh in the west and Jharkhand in the south. The capital of Bihar is Patna.

The name Bihar comes from the word ‘Vihara’, which means abode. It is a composition of 38 districts and holds the eleventh position in terms of area. Hindi is the official language, and Urdu is the second official language. Moreover, the state emblem of Bihar is a Bodhi tree. The state animal is a bear, and the state bird is an owl.


Several kingdoms existed in the ancient period. One of the kings called Videha, father of the princess Sita from Ramayan ruled the plains. It was in the Magadha period where Gautama Buddha developed the Buddhists religion and then later Mahavira reformed the theology of Jainism. Moreover, king Ashoka and the Gupta dynasty laid their foundation, which transformed the state gradually.

The history of Bihar dates back to the initial days of India’s origin. Its capital, Patna was engineered by Ajatashatru in 490 B.C.

It started as a construction for a fortress and later turned out to be a full-fledged kingdom of Magdha that stretched from the Asian country to Afghanistan.

Throughout the reign of the celebrated Indian king referred to as “Ashoka the Great”, it became one of the largest cities around the globe.

Bihar derived its name from an ancient word ‘Vihara” because it is most often known as the magical place of a great number of monasteries.

The widely worshipped Ganga River flows wide and deep through the enriched plains of the state, and passes through the center of the state from west to east.

and Climate

Bihar is situated in the north-east part of India. It is at the11th position in India's area. The area of Bihar is 94,163 square kilometers. Its length is 483 km from east to west. Its width is 345 km from north to south. In the north of Bihar, there is Nepal. In the south of Bihar Jharkhand is situated. In the east of Bihar West Bengal is situated and in the west Uttar Pradesh is situated. Bihar is made of the soils brought by the river Ganga and its tributaries. So, it is called the 'plains of the Ganga. The population of Bihar is 10,38,04,637. The position of Bihar according to population is third. Patna is the largest district and Sheikhpura is the smallest district of Bihar, according to population. Gaya is the largest district and Shivhar is the smallest district (in area) of Bihar. Someshwar range (875m) in west Champaran district is the highest mountain peak of Bihar. The Ganga is the longest and the largest river in Bihar. There are 38 districts,9 commissionaires, 104 sub-divisions, 585 blocks and 45103 Gram Panchayats in Bihar. Patna is the capital of Bihar. Hindi is the official language and Urdu is the second official language of Bihar. Bodhi tree is the state emblem of Bihar. Bear is the state animal and owl is the state bird of Bihar. Bihar has a monsoon type of climate. The total area of Bihar is 94,163 km. Ganga River divides the fertile plain unevenly. The centre of Bihar consists of Rajgir hills. The climate of Bihar is diverse with a sub-tropical temperature in general, having hot summers and cold winters. The most suitable time to visit Bihar is in winter as it is the most pleasant part of the year.

Flora and

Though the vegetation of Bihar has a deciduous forest, only a small fraction of the total area is forested. Mixed shrubs, grass and reeds dominate the forest. Common trees include bamboo, banyan and palmyra palms. The Himalayan foothills witness the most concentration of forest cover.

Large mammals like Bengal tiger, leopards, elephants and different species of deer are found. Along the Kosi River, crocodiles seem to rule. Also, birds, reptiles and fish are common in the state. Valmiki National park holds the 18th position in terms of tiger population. Other notable reserves include Gautama Buddha Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary and Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary.


Bihar’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture. It is the fourth-largest state to produce vegetables and fruits in India. The chief agricultural crops are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat, and sunflower.

The state’s 80% of the population is employed in agriculture. Favourable climate and fertile soil are the conditions that favour agriculture, but it can be sabotaged during flood and storms.

The major industrial centres in Bihar are Barauni and Hajipur. Gradually, the government has taken the initiative to improve the industrial sector in the state, especially in Patna city. Soon the project of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand is estimated to be completed.


Mithila painting is the famous style of painting used in Bihar. The painting is also known as Madhubani art, and depicts the association of humans with nature.

It is usually done on walls during festivals, marriages and events. Notable Mithila painters like the late Ganga Devi, Sita Devi and Mahasundari Devi were born in Bihar.

The painting was traditionally practised by women and passed down generations. Bihar is rich in culture and known as the land of Buddha because Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh-Gaya.

The famous dishes that encompass the cuisine are Litti Chokha, Sattu Paratha, Bihari Boti and Bihari Kebabs. For dessert, they prefer eating Khaja, a traditional sweet dish. The most celebrated festival is Chhath Puja.


The best tourist attractions are the ancient monuments which reflect the culture and heritage of Bihar. Monuments like Sabhyata Dwar in Patna, Bodh-Gaya, Darbhanga, the ancient city of Vaishali, etc., are popular.

Around 24 million people visit Bihar each year. Furthermore, it is well-known for religious places. Several Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Muslim shrines are constructed that abound in this ancient land.

Earlier, Bihar was known as the centre of learning as prominent universities like Nalanda and Vikramshila were here. Items of woodcarving, brass work, bamboo work, zari embroidery, lacquer bangles and the popular Bhagalpur sarees can be bought from the state.


Bihar is a state that reflects Indian diversity through different rulers which provide the information on the glorious history of the state. It has widened roads, railways and better air connectivity.

Also, it is the most fertile state of India with significant agriculture produce. The government is making an effort to increase female literacy and developing the education quality. Its famous tourist attractions and culture make it a must-visit state in everybody’s list.