Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve has got a high diversity of flora and fauna owing to its location which is a confluence of Eastern and Western Ghats. Apart from Tigers, the region is noted for Elephants, Gaur, Black Buck, Four Horned Antelope, Leopard, Hyena, Wild dog, White Backed Vulture, variety of primates, deers, civets, reptiles, birds, amphibians, fishes and other creatures.
The Tiger Reserve area is rich in floral composition owing to its location. The region comprises of 5 forest types which includes primarily Deciduous forest combined with Thorn forest, tropical hill forest and Riparian forest. Sandal occurred predominantly in these forests and it was designated as the Royal Tree by King Tippu Sultan.